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  • Alice Milliat | Femmes Exceptionnell

    Alice Milliat, la pionnière des JO féminins (5 mai 1884 - 19 mai 1957) Elle est la grande oubliée de l'histoire du sport français. Au début du XXème siècle, le sport connaît un élan particulier, notamment sous l'impulsion de la France et d'un de ses représentants Pierre de Coubertin. Fondateur des Jeux Olympiques modernes, il laisse pourtant une place plus que limitée aux femmes. Oubliées ? Non, volontairement écartées réplique Alice Milliat. Cette sportive de haut niveau à l'expérience internationale notable fait alors de l'égalité d'accès des femmes et des hommes à tous les sports son combat. Face aux nombreux refus des instances sportives internationales de donner une place plus juste des femmes dans le sport, elle fonde la Fédération Sportive Féminine Internationale (FSFI) et organise de manière indépendante des Jeux Olympiques féminins. Ces événements sportifs sont un tel succès qu'elle obtient la participation des femmes aux épreuves d'athlétisme aux Jeux d'Amsterdam 1928 ! Un tournant historique... Militante des droits des femmes et du droit à l’éducation physique et sportive pour toutes et tous, Alice Milliat est une véritable pionnière du sport international. Originaire de Nantes, elle découvre le monde sportif en Angleterre dans les années 1900, s’essayant aussi bien à l’aviron et à l’athlétisme qu’au hockey sur gazon. ​ De retour à Paris, elle rejoint Femina Sport, l’un des tout premiers clubs dédiés aux femmes en France et en devient la présidente dès 1915. Animée par la volonté de rendre toutes les disciplines accessibles à chaque femme, elle est à l’initiative du premier match féminin de football en France (sept. 1917) mais également du premier cross-country féminin (avril 1918). Elle est d’ailleurs elle-même une sportive accomplie, étant l’une des toutes premières femmes à remporter le Brevet d’Audax d’aviron. Présidente de Femina Sport puis de la fédération nationale dédiée aux sportives (FSFSF), Alice Milliat élargit son combat en fondant en octobre 1921 la Fédération Sportive Féminine Internationale (FSFI). Un an plus tard, le 20 août 1922, elle « proclame ouvert les Premiers Jeux Olympiques féminins » à Paris devant plusieurs milliers de personnes. Des hommes s’opposent à cette féminisation et la polémique enfle comme on peut le lire dans un journal de décembre 1921 : "Ils nous refusent le droit au muscle parce qu’ils veulent rester les plus forts. Mais ils auront beau faire, notre sexe aura du biceps et du jarret, et ce sera tant pis pour vous messieurs les tyrans ! Le muscle de la femme est en route et rien ne l’arrêtera." Après avoir essuyé de nombreux refus, Alice Milliat s’appuie sur le succès des Jeux Mondiaux féminins pour obtenir le droit des femmes à participer aux épreuves olympiques d’athlétisme à Amsterdam (1928). Elle sera alors la première femme juge olympique. La participation pleine et entière des femmes aux Jeux n’étant cependant pas encore acquise, elle poursuit en parallèle l’organisation des Jeux Mondiaux féminins jusqu’en 1934. Faisant face à de nombreuses résistances et d’importantes difficultés de santé, associé à un contexte politique difficile, Alice Milliat est contrainte de quitter à 52 ans la scène sportive internationale et décède finalement en 1957 dans l’anonymat total. La véritable histoire d'Alice Milliat, la pionnière des JO

  • Josephine Baker | Femmes Exceptionnell

    Josephine Baker Josephine Baker in 1940 Years of youth Freda Josephine McDonald, later called by her stage name Joséphine Baker, was born on June 3, 1906, in the United States, in Missouri , of Spanish , African-American and Native American descent. It probably descended from Eddie Carson, musician itinerant street with Spanish origins 4 . Artists, his parents put together a number of song and dance but Eddie Carson abandoned his family in 1907. Carrie McDonald, his partner, remarried a worker, Arthur Martin, whose name Joséphine took 6 . The young woman spends part of her childhood alternating between school and housework for wealthy people to whom her mother sends her to work. At that time, Joséphine Baker had no other choice than to contribute, through her salary, to support the siblings of which she was the eldest; the family is very poor and has grown: Carrie and Arthur had three children - Richard, Margaret and Willie Mae - who must be fed. Joséphine left school in February 1920 to get married, as the registers of the public establishment she attended in Saint-Louis indicate. Then 13 years old, she continues to live in the house of Martin 9 with her husband Willie Wells. ​ Josephine Baker in the 1920s Negro magazine Joséphine Baker, la panthère noire 00:00 / 48:48 Joséphine Baker, la panthère noire Paris 22 septembre 1925. Sur un quai de la gare Saint-Lazare, un homme attend. C'est André Daven, le secrétaire général du théâtre des Champs Elysées. Il est nerveux. Le train du Havre entre en gare. La portière d'un wagon s'est ouverte et sur le quai se répand un petit monde bruyant, riant. Une troupe multicolore, extravagante, portant des vêtements insensés. Des chemises rouges, vertes, des souliers jaunes. Des chapeaux avec des coquelicots qui surplombent 30 visages d'ébène. Trente paires d'yeux étonnés. C'est la troupe américaine de la Revue Nègre. Une adolescente au teint cuivré, souple, électrique, portant une salopette noire et blanche se détache du groupe. Les bras tendus, elle fonce sur André Daven, qu'elle ne connaît pas, lui saute au cou et s'écrie de sa voix d'oiseau : ​ Alors ça c'est Paris ! ​ Robert Arnaut révèle ici ses talents de conteur, il raconte l'arrivée de Joséphine Baker dans la fameuse Revue Nègre, venue d'outre-Atlantique pour bouleverser le Paris de 1925. Portrait magnifique d'une femme hors-normes, cette Chronique Sauvage de Robert Arnaut nous offre un récit haletant et savoureux, et, en prime, la voix chantée et parlée de Joséphine Baker, ainsi qu'une interview de l'affichiste Paul Colin, dont le talent servit à merveille les premiers éclats de la danseuse. ​ La Revue Nègre En 1925, au musée des Arts Décoratifs, l’exposition d’Art nègre attire l’œil de certains artistes parisiens, dont le peintre cubiste Fernand léger. Son directeur artistique, André Daven, ami du peintre, choisit alors de présenter Les Blackbirds et les danseurs de la Revue nègre, venus d’outre-Atlantique et qui ne laisseront personne indifférent. Le graphiste, Paul Colin, élève d'Eugène Vallin et de Victor Prouvé, suit de très près les répétitions. La présence de l’éblouissante Joséphine l’inspire infiniment et il contribue, par le succès de ses affiches du spectacle, à lancer la carrière de la jeune danseuse. Freda Josephine McDonald, known as Joséphine Baker 1 , is a singer , dancer , actress , magazine leader and French resistance fighter of American origin, born June 3 , 1906 in Saint-Louis ( Missouri ) and died April 12 , 1975 in the 13th arrondissement from Paris . Star of the music hall and icon of the Roaring Twenties , she became French in 1937 , after her marriage to Jean Lion. During the Second World War, it played an important role in resistance to the occupier. She then used her great popularity in the service of the fight against racism and for the emancipation of blacks, in particular by supporting the American civil rights movement . By decision of Emmanuel Macron , entry to the Pantheon of Joséphine Baker is announced for November 30, 2021. Freda Joséphine McDonald as a child Debut at the music hall ​ Freda Josephine McDonald, later called by her stage name Joséphine Baker, was born on June 3, 1906, in the United States, in Missouri , of Spanish , African-American and Native American descent. She would probably be descended from Eddie Carson, a traveling street musician with Spanish origins. Artists, his parents put together a number of song and dance but Eddie Carson abandoned his family in 1907. Carrie McDonald, his partner, remarried a worker, Arthur Martin, whose name Joséphine took 6 . The young woman spends part of her childhood alternating between school and housework for wealthy people to whom her mother sends her to work. At that time, Joséphine Baker had no other choice than to contribute, through her salary, to support the siblings of which she was the eldest; the family is very poor and has grown: Carrie and Arthur had three children - Richard, Margaret and Willie Mae - who must be fed. Joséphine left school in February 1920 to get married, as the registers of the public establishment she attended in Saint-Louis indicate. Then 13 years old, she continues to live in the house of Martin 9 with her husband Willie Wells. ​ Broadway dancer ​ But Josephine Baker thinks big, and the desire to dance on Broadway pushes her, barely 16 years old, to leave her second husband to go and try her luck in New York. Once there, it doesn't take long for her to show up at the Broadway Music Hall on 63rd Street, Daly's 63rd Street Theater. (in) . There, she suffered several refusals from the director before finally being offered a summary role. She therefore joined the troupe of the musical Shuffle Along , a popular show with an all-black cast. After two years of touring, she changes allegiance and joins forces with the Chocolate Dandies, which she in turn leaves to enter the Plantation Club, where she meets Caroline Dudley Reagan. This socialite, wife of the commercial attaché of the American embassy in Paris, Donald J. Reagan, sees in Josephine Baker a great potential. She therefore offers her a salary of 250 dollars a week if she agrees to follow her to France, where Reagan wants to put on a show in which Joséphine Baker will be the star and which will make her a star: the Negro Revue. ​ Après la Première Guerre mondiale, Paul Colin deviendra le chef de l'École moderne de l'affiche lithographiée. Il aura imaginé avec talent plus de 1 400 affiches, de décors de théâtre et de costumes, en quarante années de création pour les arts de la scène et le monde du spectacle. Si certaines critiques de l’époque expriment le refus d’un choc culturel, Joséphine Baker a ses fans. Parmi eux, de nombreux artistes, tels Fernand Léger, Kees Van Dongen, Le Corbusier, Colette, Jean Cocteau, Pablo Picasso ou encore René Crevel. Par sa liberté de ton et d’allure, son indépendance d’esprit, sa personnalité hors-normes, son succès lié à cette présence explosant tous les codes, le phénomène Joséphine Baker devient l’emblème des Années folles et marquera l’apogée de la "mode nègre" en art. Sur décision du Président de la République, Joséphine Baker sera honorée au Panthéon le 30 novembre 2021. À travers ce destin, la France distingue une personnalité exceptionnelle, née américaine, ayant choisi, au nom du combat qu’elle mena toute sa vie pour la liberté et l’émancipation, la France éternelle des Lumières universelles. Artiste de music-hall de renommée mondiale, engagée dans la Résistance, inlassable militante antiraciste, elle fut de tous les combats qui rassemblent les citoyens de bonne volonté, en France et de par le monde. Pour toutes ces raisons, parce qu’elle est l’incarnation de l’esprit français, Joséphine Baker, disparue en 1975, mérite aujourd’hui la reconnaissance de la patrie. Joséphine Baker (1906 - 1975)(1) 00:00 / 59:45 Joséphine Baker, une vie, une oeuvre Quand Joséphine Baker cassait les codes du noir 00:00 / 28:43 Quand Joséphine Baker cassait les codes du noir Joséphine Baker (1906 - 1975), une artiste engagée(1) 00:00 / 58:55 Joséphine Baker, une artiste engagée Joséphine Baker en 1940. • Crédits : Domaine public – Wikimedia Commons - Studio Harcourt – RMN Icône du music-hall, Joséphine Baker (ici en 1948) sera toute sa vie une artiste engagée, au service de l'égalité des droits mais aussi de la liberté. Ministère de la Culture/Médiathèque du Patrimoine, Dist. RMN / Studio Harcourt Joséphine Baker, en 1961, au Château des Milandes.• Crédits : Domaine public – Wikimedia Commons - Jack de Nijs / Anefo Joséphine Baker repose à Monaco auprès de son quatrième époux, le chef d’orchestre Jo BOUILLON (Joseph Bouillon : 1908-1984).

  • Jeanne Barret | Femmes Exceptionnell

    Jeanne Barret Jeanne Baré in a sailor's uniform (1817). Jeanne Barret (or Baré, Baret, née Barer note 1 ), born July 27, 1740 in La Comelle and died August 5 , 1807 in Saint-Aulaye ( Saint-Antoine-de-Breuilh ), in France , is an explorer and botanist French. She is notably known for being the first woman to have traveled the world 1 with the Bougainville expedition on the Boudeuse and the Star from 1766 to 1769 2 . Disguised as a man, under the name Jean Barret, she enlisted as a valet and assistant to the expedition naturalist, Philibert Commerson , shortly before the expedition ships set sail. According to Bougainville, she was an expert in botany ​ Source 2019 - France Culture The Solanum baretiae named in honor of Jeanne Barret. Jeanne Barret, première femme à avoir fait le tour du monde Petite orpheline bourguignonne, botaniste brillante, elle sera la première femme à faire le tour du monde, travestie en homme en 1767. On doit à Jeanne Barret la découverte en France de près de 3 000 espèces de plantes. ​ Jeanne Barret est engagée à 22 ans comme gouvernante auprès d’un médecin et botaniste, Philibert Commerson. Elle entreprend à ses côtés l’étude de la flore, apprend à reconnaître et à classer les plantes, confectionne des herbiers… Ils sont amoureux et Jeanne tombe enceinte alors qu’ils ne sont pas mariés. Honnis par leur entourage, ils déménagent à Paris et perdent leur enfant en bas âge. ​ Ils fréquentent les plus grands scientifiques parisiens de l’époque comme les naturalistes Jussieu et Buffon. Philibert est ainsi recommandé pour accompagner Bougainville dans un voyage autour du monde. Sa mission ? Observer, collecter, classer et conserver des spécimens de la flore locale à chaque escale. À cette époque, les femmes sont interdites sur les navires du Roi depuis 1689, mais Jeanne en décide autrement. ​ Se travestir pour monter à bord ​ Le 1er février 1767, depuis Rochefort, elle embarque avec Philibert, travestie en homme : cheveux coupés à la garçonne, poitrine bandée, en pantalon... Elle se fait appeler Jean, valet et assistant du botaniste. À bord de L’Étoile, puis de La Boudeuse Jeanne et Philibert font route vers les Amériques. Pour faire taire les rumeurs, Jeanne redouble de travail sur le pont : ​ "Comment reconnaître une femme dans cet infatigable Baré ? (...) [Elle avait] un courage et une force qui lui avaient mérité le surnom de "bête de somme". Louis-Antoine de Bougainville, 1772 ​ À chaque escale, elle s’aventure avec Philibert à la recherche de nouvelles espèces. Ils élaborent un gigantesque herbier et découvrent près de Rio de Janeiro un arbrisseau qu’ils nomment bougainvillea , le bougainivillier, en hommage à leur capitaine. D’après le Voyage autour du monde de Bougainville, Jeanne Barret qui avait réussi à duper tout un équipage pendant deux ans, aurait été démasquée et agressée par des Tahitiens lors d’une escale : ​ "À peine Baré, eut mis pied à terre, que les Tahitiens l’entourent, crient que c’est une femme et veulent lui faire les honneurs de l’île. Louis-Antoine de Bougainville, 1772 ​ Cependant, les journaux de bord des compagnons de Bougainville évoquent plutôt des agressions sexuelles venant de l’équipage. Elle se protège avec deux pistolets le reste de la traversée. ​ Les années sur l'île Maurice ​ Jeanne et Philibert débarquent et s’établissent sur l’isle de France, aujourd’hui île Maurice. Ils sont accueillis par le botaniste Pierre Poivre avec qui ils continuent la collecte de la flore locale. Cinq ans plus tard, Jeanne se retrouve seule après le décès de Philibert. Elle tient un cabaret et est même condamnée pour avoir vendu de l’alcool un jour de messe. Elle fait envoyer les 34 caisses d’échantillons botaniques à Paris, à l’intérieur 5 000 espèces différentes dont 3 000 étaient encore inconnues en France. Elle se marie plus tard avec un soldat et ils rentrent en France. En 1785, Bougainville plaide pour qu’elle reçoive une pension royale, ce qu’elle obtiendra de Louis XVI qui la nomme alors “femme extraordinaire” pour avoir été la 1ere femme à faire le tour du monde. ​ Louis XVI la nommera femme extraordinaire Elle est enterrée en Dordogne dans la commune de Saint-Antoine-de-Breuilh.

  • The Train (Film) | Femmes Exceptionnell

    Rose Valland, on "the Art front" The train Inspired by the memories of Rose Valland, the American film Le train in 1964 informed the general public of the spoliations and looting carried out by the Nazis. But the presence of Rose Valland remains there quite discreet and does not give the measure of the extent of the task which she carried out during four years at the Jeu de Paume. Above all, the film pays tribute to the heroic and inventive railway workers to delay the departure of the train. In April 1975, the film was broadcast on French television as part of the program "Les dossiers de l'école". Rose Valland takes part in the debate. The show arouses many calls from viewers. In a letter sent a few days after the broadcast to a friend, Léon Christophe, Rose Valland underlines her difficulty in bearing witness to the past: Letter to Léon Christophe (photocopy), Rose Valland, April 1975, paper and ink, 17 x 17 (cm), Brunoy, Mireille Christophe, © Mireille Christophe. “ It's true I felt particularly nervous at the start of the show! and it was not easy for me to dominate myself! It all started too quickly. So many things are also jostling in the memories of each of us that it is not easy at the last moment to always choose well. " ​ Rose Valland heroine of an American film ​ The train, a film made in 1964 by the American filmmaker John Frankenheimer, broadly resumes the work by Rose Valland, Le Front de l'art. Defense of French collections 1939-1945, Paris, Plon, 1961. The first ten minutes of the film show Rose Valland, in the guise of Suzanne Flon, at the Jeu de Paume, when she monitors the comings and goings of the Germans and informs the Resistance and the American agents, thanks to the meticulous recording of all the looted paintings of which she notes the characteristics and the destination. The film especially distinguishes the heroism of the resistant railway workers. In 1975, Rose Valland was invited to Armand Jamot and Joseph Pasteur's television program, “Les dossiers de l'école”, after the broadcast of the film Le train. The train : ​ By John Frankenheimer , Arthur Penn By Franklin Coen , Frank Davis With Burt Lancaster , Paul Scofield , Jeanne Moreau Original title The Train

  • Elisa Deroche | Femmes Exceptionnell

    Elisa Deroche, the first female pilot ​ Élisa Deroche, known under the pseudonym Baronne Raymonde de Laroche, is a French aviator born August 22 , 1882 in Paris ( 4th arr. ) 1 and died on July 18 , 1919 in Le Crotoy . She was the first woman in the world to obtain her pilot's license on March 8, 1910. ​ Élisa Léontine Deroche was born in the Marais district at number 61, rue de la Verrerie in Paris, to Charles-François Deroche portfolio manager and Christine Calydon Gaillard. As a young woman, she began an artistic career. On December 15, 1903, at the Sarah Bernhardt theater , she played the role of Doña Sérafine in the play La Sorcière by Victorien Sardou 2 . On October 10, 1904, at the Mathurins theater , she played the role of Maria in the play Baptiste by Michel Carré 3 . On December 16, 1906, at the Réjane theater , she played the role of Rigolboche in the play La Savelli, an adaptation of Gilbert-Augustin Thierry's novel, with a production by Max Maurey 4 It was during this period at the theater that she will take the pseudonym of " Baroness Raymonde de Laroche », In memory of his granddaughter, Raymonde Marguerite Charlotte Thadome, who died on March 25, 1902 at the age of seven and a half months 5 , n 1 . She is also devoted to painting and sculpture and motorsport. Very early on, the young Elisa Deroche developed a passion for sports. In 1892, at the age of ten, he was offered a pony ; she developed a passion for horse riding and then successively tennis, rowing, skating, and cycling 6 . Around 1902, she will drive a motorcycle, modeled on the Werner Brothers . It was also in 1902 that she obtained her driving license 7 . On September 13, 1906, Raymonde de Laroche was present in Bagatelle , when Santos-Dumont made a successful first flight. On January 13, 1908, she was in Issy-les-Moulineaux , when Henri Farman made a loop of one kilometer 8 . Raymonde de Laroche will be interested in the studies and experiences of Blériot , Ernest Archdeacon , and the Voisin brothers. After studying various aircraft, she chose the Voisin biplane for these qualities of handling, stability and ease of piloting, and it was in 1909 that she met Charles Voisin , founder with her brother Gabriel of the company Voisin Frères 9. . ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ Raymonde de Laroche can no longer remain a mere spectator of the pioneers of aviation ; she confirms her decision to carry out her first flight alone on board. And it is the aviator engineer Édouard Château who will take charge of his training at the Châlons camp in Mourmelon. On October 22, 1909, she will make her first flight alone aboard a Voisin biplane over a distance of 300 meters, the next day she will do better with a flight of 6 kilometers, still under the vigilance of Mr. Château 10 . On January 1, 1910, she took delivery of her Voisin biplane and made a fine seven-minute flight, but was stopped by the night so that she could not compete for the pilot's license (see the newspaper the Auto of January 2, 1910 page 3) January 4, 1910 Raymonde de Laroche trains to obtain her pilot's license on the Bouy field, she takes her flight around 3 p.m. in a weak wind, she makes a first lap of the track flying at four meters high in perfect conditions, when on the second lap, having taken a turn too wide and not being able to climb high enough, she crashed into the poplars bordering the road, the aircraft fell suddenly, she was lying unconscious and immediately transported to Mourmelon ( see the newspaper l'Auto of January 5, 1910 page 3) That same day Léon Delagrange was killed on the ground of La Croix-d'Hins in Gironde (see the newspaper l'Auto of January 5, 1910 page 1) It was during the Heliopolis meeting in Egypt from February 6 to 13, 1910 that the Aero-Club de France will validate the obtaining of the pilot's license from Baroness de Laroche, which will be issued to her on March 8, 1910. She is the first woman, in France and in the world to obtain the pilot's license, no 36 of the Aéro-Club de France 11 . However, she was not the first woman to have piloted an airplane solo, it was Thérèse Peltier who preceded her by making a flight in September 1908 without having a certificate. From then on, she took part in numerous aerial gatherings, both in France and abroad, such as Héliopolis , the Meeting de Tours from April 30 to May 5, 1910, the meeting in Saint Petersburg from May 8 to May 15, 1910, where , in front of Tsar Nicolas II , Élisa de Laroche will make a splendid flight : at a height of 100 meters, it cuts off the engine of its biplane to land in gliding 12 . It also occurs at the Budapest meeting from June 5 to 15, 1910 and at the Rouen meeting from June 19 to 26, 1910. From July 3 to 10, 1910, it appeared during the second great aviation week in Champagne . She was seriously injured during a meeting in Reims , July 8, 1910, her plane having crashed ; it will be transported to Doctor Roussel's clinic in Reims. Recovered, she left the clinic on October 7, 1910 to return to her Parisian home 13 , n 2 . On May 20, 1911, Raymonde de Laroche was appointed Academy Officer by Théodore Steeg , Minister of Public Instruction and Fine Arts 14 . September 14, 1911 at the Meeting of Dinard on the beach of the Lock Roland Garros made a beautiful flight of ten minutes over the sea with Raymonde de Laroche as a passenger (see La Revue Aérienne of September 25, 1911 page 483) On September 26, 1912 at Corcelles-en-Beaujolais at a place called La Lime, Charles Voisin was driving his car, a Hyspano-Suiza, with La Baronne de Laroche, when suddenly they were victims of a terrible accident. His close friend Charles was killed instantly, Raymonde de Laroche was thrown out of the car and got away with a few bruises (see the Auto newspaper of September 28, 1912, page 3). After a long period of convalescence, following his accident of July 8, 1910, and nostalgic to regain altitude, fleeing all the remonstrances that his friends and family might have given him, Raymonde de Laroche comes to an agreement with the manufacturer Sommer to resume training at Mourmelon, in November 1912 15 . During the year 1913 she will train at length in Buc at Farman. On May 23, 1913, leaving Buc, Raymonde de Laroche will fly for more than an hour at a height of 100 meters, the night will force her to return and she will land masterfully in a gliding flight near the hangars (see the newspaper l'Auto of May 24, 1913 page 3) From July 12 to 14, 1913 at the Meeting of La Ferté-Vidame, she will present exhibitions on July 13, note the presence of the aviator Jacques Vial her future second husband (information announced in the newspaper l'Aéro of July 12, 1913 page 4 ) From August 10 to 18, 1913 at the Granville meeting, she was particularly distinguished by magnificent evolutions on her hydro-plane-Henri-Farman-Gnome, despite a violent wind she ventured daringly at sea in the direction of the Chausey Islands after veering seven or eight kilometers offshore, she returned to land superbly greeted by cheers (see the Aéro newspaper of August 11, 1913 page 2) On November 25, 1913 in Mourmelon at Camp de Châlons, Raymonde de Laroche won the Femina Cup for distance and duration, on an H. Farman-Gnome biplane, she took to the air at 7h 5mn and turned on the 10 kilometer track. and covered a distance of 323 kilometers for 4 hours, but as a result of a malfunction of the fuel pointer she reluctantly ended her flight at three past twelve. Note that the Femina Cup was previously held by Ms. Pallier on November 10, 1913, having traveled a distance of 290 kilometers in 3 hours 40 minutes (see the newspaper l'Aérophile of the year 1913 page 543) In August 1914 his Henri Farman 60 HP N ° 69 device was requisitioned, in October 1914 Reims was bombed, his home at N ° 6 rue Coquebert was probably destroyed, she remained in Paris at N ° 5 rue des Belles Sheets. She wanted to take place in a squadron and compete in daring with our boldest pilots, but the authorization she requested with such insistence was mercilessly refused (see the newspaper Le Petit Journal of July 19, 1919 page 1) On April 21, 1919 Raymonde de Laroche resumed training at Issy-les-Moulineaux, she piloted a Caudron G3, and her first post-war tests were most encouraging (see the Auto newspaper of April 21, 1919 page 2 ) She broke the women's altitude record on June 6, 1919, at Issy-les-Moulineaux she piloted a Caudron G3, she took off at 8 hours 38 minutes in the presence of the Aéro Club de France commissioner, the sky was clear at the start but was covered quickly, at 10 hours 27 minutes 30 seconds it returned to land, the recording barograph indicated an altitude of 3900 meters (see the Auto newspaper of June 7, 1919 page 1) According to the comments of the newspaper l'Auto of June 8, 1919, learning of the performance of Raymonde de Laroche the American Ruth Law declared that in September 1917 she would have reached the altitude of 4,240 meters, it seems surprising that the aviator American waited nearly two years to claim a record that has never been approved (see the Auto newspaper of June 8, 1919, page 1). New altitude record on June 12, 1919 at Issy-les-Moulineaux, Raymonde de Laroche takes off at 19 hours 8 minutes and 45 seconds, with remarkable regularity, the courageous aviator rises to more than 4000 meters, but by Following the fog she was forced to land around 9:15 p.m. at nightfall, at Gastine 8 kilometers from Nangis, the landing was perfect, the barograph indicated 4800 meters, her performance broke the record claimed by Ruth Law ( see the newspaper l'Auto of June 14, 1919 page 1) This feat will mark the peak of his career. because she died on July 18, 1919 during a training flight, on a Caudron model G3 prototype, when she was not at the controls : piloted by the aviator Barrault, the aircraft crashes on the beach of Crotoy. Élisa Deroche rests in the Père-Lachaise cemetery , in the 92nd division. ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ An autograph of Raymonde de Laroche given after 1910 accident. Of all French military aircraft, the Caudron G.3 was the only aircraft to be built continuously from September 1914 until the Armistice. Despite a magnificently fulfilled career, it was through exploits after 1918 that he remained in the memories until today. ​ Artillery Observer ​ In August 1914 only one squadron had a two-seater Caudron G.2 for reconnaissance and observation of Artillery, the C.11; a second, unofficial, the CM, had single-seaters. Their crews were particularly effective in directing artillery fire during the Battle of the Marne, so that the improved version of the G.2, the G.3 was retained as one of the four standard airplanes of the Aeronautics by General Hirschauer. ​ Versatile ​ The G.3 did wonders in its initial role by inaugurating the operational use of the TSF to communicate with the gun batteries, but also as a photographic reconnaissance aircraft and even a light bomber. Very safe and manoeuvrable plane, of very simple construction, it forgave piloting errors and its very wide track gear guaranteed a safe landing. Only its top speed left something to be desired. ​ Coach ​ Large-scale production was first carried out jointly by Caudron in Lyon and Issy-les-Moulineaux, Blériot in Suresnes and SPAD (Deperdussin), the latter two being out of workload. The Caudron G.3 no longer met the requirements of combat in 1916. On the other hand, when it entered schools, it enjoyed considerable success with instructors and students, including Fonck, l'As des As, Fronval and Delmotte. At the Armistice, 2,402 units had been built, some of which had been used by Italy, Great Britain, Portugal, Spain, Serbia and Russia. ​ Achievements in peacetime ​ At the end of hostilities, Jules Védrines, the Ace of Special Missions, landed on the roof of Galeries Lafayette with this plane without brakes - powerful arms kept it from tipping over. Adrienne Bolland became, on April 1, 1921, the fourth person to cross the Andes Cordillera and François Durafour landed just below Mont-Blanc on July 30, 1921. ​ Élisa Deroche rests in the Père-Lachaise cemetery , in the 92nd division.

  • Negro review | Femmes Exceptionnell

    La Revue nègre is a musical show created in 1925 in Paris . By its success and the personality of Josephine Baker which is the rising star, it allows among other things a wider distribution of the music of jazz and black culture in Europe . Josephine Baker dancing the Charleston of Folies-Bergère , in Paris - Revue Nègre Dance (1926). Story ​ The creation of the Revue nègre is linked to the emergence in France so-called jazz music: this landed in Paris a few months before the end of the First World War via jazz bands composed of American soldiers and influence of musicians like Igor Stravinsky (Ragtime, 1919), poets like Jean Cocteau , Guillaume Apollinaire Where Blaise Cendrars , painters, before spreading in Parisian dance halls through the fashion of charleston . Other styles are revealed as the Jazz New Orleans since London or Duke Ellington very early on gave a series of concerts. On the other hand, at the beginning of 1920s , the shows of music hall and cabaret are distributed to a larger audience. In 1921, we can even speak of a " negrophilia " : the Goncourt price is awarded that year to Martinican René Maran for Batouala, a true negro novel. The Revue nègre is part of the context of "black madness", it is both the product and the instrument of its amplification 3 . The creation of the “Revue nègre” takes place within the framework of Champs-Élysées theater who had already known hours of glories and scandals at the time of the Russian ballets (1913-1917) and is looking for a second wind. In 1925, André Daven , artistic director of this Parisian theater, sets out in search of a new type of show. His friend the painter Fernand Leger who worked on Swedish Ballets , with mixed success, has also long been marked by Negro Art , as have its accomplices Apollinaire, Picasso, Max Jacob and some of the first surrealists: Léger suggests creating a show performed entirely by blacks. Daven then meets an American, Caroline Dudley Reagan (who will become the companion of Joseph Delteil ), who sets out in search of a black troop for Daven. It is at new York that Dudley, as a real impresario, succeeded in convincing twelve black musicians whose Sidney Bechet , and eight choristers including Joséphine Baker , twenty people in all, to leave for Paris, a city renowned for its liberality. The artistic spirit of the review is unprecedented, mixing original jazz-band music and choreography, burlesque numbers, scenography with mobile decorations in front of which the partly naked body can express itself without vulgarity. We can say that this show constitutes an event in the sense that, on the one hand, it reveals for the first time in France an authentic "black culture" detached from colonialist pressures, and on the other hand, it allows a kind of popular essence to emerge in a place reserved for artistic experiences of modernist type. The promotional poster is created by the young poster artist Paul Colin , whose brilliant career she helped launch 3 . The premiere takes place on 2 October 1925 , Joséphine Baker goes in the first part. In the crowded room, are notably present Robert Desnos , Francis Picabia and Blaise Cendrars . Success is there: Daven wins his bet. Contexte historique ​ Les années folles, antidote à la Grande Guerre ​ « Roaring Twenties » de Broadway dépeintes par Fitzgerald aux États-Unis, années folles symbolisées en France par le scandale de la Revue nègre : la décennie qui suit la Grande Guerre peut apparaître comme une parenthèse de luxe appelée plus tard « l’entre-deux-guerres ». La « génération du feu » – dont fait d’ailleurs partie Paul Colin (1892-1985), blessé à Verdun en 1916 – a beau témoigner, manifester et commémorer, il semble que les Français cherchent à oublier et s’engouffrent dans une course frénétique à la consommation et à la modernité. Depuis le début du siècle, le traditionnel café-concert s’est peu à peu mué en music-hall. Les revues des grandes salles parisiennes rivalisent par l’appel à l’exotisme, le luxe affiché des décors et l’originalité des programmes musicaux et des rythmes dansés. L’affiche de Paul Colin fait date, tout autant que la Revue nègre qui a fait irruption à Paris en octobre et novembre 1925. C’est semble-t-il par hasard que se sont rencontrés, plusieurs années après le conflit, le peintre provincial encore inconnu et un ancien camarade du front, devenu entre-temps directeur adjoint du Music-hall des Champs-Élysées. Désigné affichiste et décorateur de la salle parisienne, Paul Colin, figure marquante de l’Art déco, entame avec cette affiche une longue carrière de dessinateur à succès. ​ La Revue nègre, entre caricature et modernité ​ Avant de livrer le dessin final pour la première affiche de la Revue nègre, Paul Colin suit longuement les répétitions de la troupe (treize danseurs et douze musiciens, dont Sydney Bechet), venue de New York où elle a déjà triomphé sur Broadway. Seul changement, et de taille : le remplacement de la vedette – qui a refusé de faire le voyage – par une jeune fille de dix-huit ans à peine : Joséphine Baker. C’est donc logiquement que Colin choisit de la faire figurer sur l’affiche, au sommet d’une composition classique en triangle. Le présent document correspond à l’une de ses esquisses préliminaires. Sur le fond blanc se détachent nettement le brun foncé et le rouge des figures stylisées. La danseuse ressort elle-même en blanc et gris sur le fond des fracs et des peaux noires ; elle est légèreté, suggestion érotique et frêle provocation imposée à l’énergie brute et massive du musicien et du danseur. La rondeur exagérée des formes de la danseuse et des yeux des deux « nègres », archétypes reconnaissables à leurs épaisses lèvres rouges et à leurs cheveux crépus, tire le dessin vers la caricature, consciente et assumée. Mais l’esquisse saisit également le mouvement qui anime la troupe entière. La disposition et les attitudes balancées des trois personnages, représentés ici sur le vif, en un instantané, comme en suspens, donnent l’illusion d’assister à un moment du spectacle. La rythmique syncopée du charleston transparaît nettement dans le déhanchement provocateur de Joséphine Baker. Enfin, la publicité du spectacle lui-même et sa renommée sont assurées par le rappel des grimaces – joues gonflées, yeux qui roulent et qui louchent, postures animales – qui lui ont été imposées pour la dernière scène, dite de la « danse sauvage ». Le portrait photographique de Joséphine Baker en pleine gloire, lors de la suite de la tournée à Berlin, synthétise tout ce que la jeune fille noire américaine a apporté et inspiré au Paris des années folles. Elle apparaît ici sur un fond neutre, sans décor exotique, dans une pose plutôt sage – surtout au regard des attitudes « sauvages » (en fait, fortement érotiques) qu’elle prenait lors de ses spectacles. La simple nudité de l’artiste est relevée par l’exubérance des plumes d’autruche qui voilent et suggèrent en même temps sa cambrure. Les accroche-cœurs de sa coupe « garçonne », noir de jais, et sa peau hâlée contrastent comme sur l’affiche de Paul Colin avec ses yeux en coin, ses dents éclatantes, les perles qui ondulent sur sa poitrine et, enfin, les manchettes, « chevillières » et chaussures blanches. Sa posture, un bras levé, une main sur la hanche, la tête penchée en signe d’invite, est entrée telle quelle dans l’imaginaire collectif. ​ L’apogée de la « mode nègre » dans l’art : le «phénomène Joséphine Baker », emblème des années folles ​ La thématique « nègre » a inspiré les avant-gardes du début du siècle avant de se cristalliser dans la figure de Joséphine Baker et l’irruption du jazz sur les scènes parisiennes. La première danse « nègre » a été introduite à Paris par Gabriel Astruc au Nouveau Cirque, en 1903 : il s’agissait en fait du cake walk inspiré des minstrels shows américains – où des Blancs se grimaient en Noirs pour chanter et danser comme les anciens esclaves. L’« art nègre » cher à Picasso ou aux surréalistes, les poèmes de Cendrars ou les mélodies de Milhaud et de Satie, témoignent d’une certaine « négrophilie » des artistes français du premier quart du XXe siècle. Elle est indissociable d’une aspiration à la modernité qui suscite le scandale : idoles africaines opposées aux statues de l’Antiquité classique, jazz débarqué avec les soldats américains de la Grande Guerre concurrençant la musique de chambre ou l’opéra de la Vieille Europe – et enfin, Joséphine Baker, la trépidante danseuse au léger pagne de bananes (dans son spectacle de 1927). Il semblerait que la « danse sauvage » qui a révélé la danseuse au Tout-Paris le 2 octobre 1925 ait été ajoutée à la scénographie new-yorkaise à la demande des propriétaires du Music-hall des Champs-Élysées, en manque de spectateurs. Le scandale ainsi créé artificiellement égala celui que les Ballets russes de Diaghilev avaient suscité dans la décennie précédente. Ici, il tient sans doute moins à la bestialité fantasmée des « Nègres » dans l’imaginaire des Français qu’à la liberté totale que connotent la nudité, les déhanchements, les grimaces, le sourire, la coiffure courte de Joséphine Baker. Elle incarne l’image de la femme émancipée capable de jouir d’elle-même, de décider de son corps – de s’abandonner à la fête des années folles. ​

  • Isadora Duncan | Femmes Exceptionnell

    Isadora Duncan the Barefoot Dancer “My name is Isadora. It means child or gift of Isis " (Isadora Duncan) Isadora Duncan, born May 26 or 27, 1877 in San Francisco and died September 14, 1927 in Nice, is an American dancer who revolutionized the practice of dance by returning to the model of ancient Greek figures. Through her great freedom of expression, which favored spontaneity and naturalness, she provided the first foundations of modern European dance, at the origin of contemporary dance. Influenced by her brother Raymond Duncan on a return to Hellenism and the cult of the body, she will want to give back all its place to beauty, to the harmony of the body, daring to show off almost naked, hidden only by a few veils. In addition, his choreographic work gives a special place to spirituality. Founder of several dance schools in the United States and in Europe, especially in Russia, where her revolutionary ideal led her, in 1922 she married one of her greatest authors, the poet Sergei Essenin, in a union that only lasted a short time. of time. Isadora Duncan was born at 55 Geary Street in San Francisco on May 26 or 27, 1877, the youngest of a family of four, including Thomas Gray, a California senator, children whose parents were banker Charles Duncan and Mary Dora Gray. Soon after Isadora's birth, her father lost his bank and publicly fell out of favor. Her parents divorced in 1880 and Mary Dora Gray moved with her children to Oakland where she worked as a pianist and music teacher. Isadora Duncan attended school in her early years but soon dropped out because, for its independent nature, the school system proved to be far too restrictive. On the other hand, her family being poor, she and her sister quickly began to give dance lessons to the children of the neighborhood in order to help with the finances of the household. In 1895, she joined the Augustin Daly theater company in New York, but was quickly disappointed with this art. In 1899, she decided to go to Europe, first to London and then, a year later, to Paris. There, in two years, she obtained success and notoriety. In Paris, the effervescence of the bohemian life of Montparnasse does not suit him. In 1909, she moved into two large apartments at 5, rue Danton, where the ground floor served as her apartment while the first floor served as a dance school. Barefoot, dressed in flashy scarves and faux Greek tunics, she creates a primitive style based on choreographic improvisation to go against the rigid styles of the time. She was particularly inspired by Greek mythology. She rejected traditional ballet steps to highlight improvisation, emotion and the human form. Isadora Duncan believed that classical ballet, with its strict rules and codifications, was "ugly and unnatural". A very large number of people rallied to his philosophy, which enabled him to open a school and teach there. Its important influence inspires many artists and authors in their creations of sculptures, jewels, poems, novels, photographs, watercolors and paintings, with the example of the character of Élise Angel of the novel of John Cowper Powys As I hear it, dancer freely inspired by Isadora Duncan and who in the novel represents the (free) lover of the main hero Richard Storm in contrast to her other legitimate and possessive love Nelly. When the Champs-Élysées theater was built in 1913, his portrait was engraved by Antoine Bourdelle in the bas-reliefs above the entrance, and painted by Maurice Denis on the wall fresco in the auditorium representing the nine Muses. . At that time, she moved to Meudon Bellevue and founded her dance school there. In 1922, in order to show her support for the social and political experience of the new Soviet Union, she decided to settle in Moscow. His character was totally outside the increasingly austere framework imposed by the new Soviet regime after the revolution, but his international notoriety brought more than welcome attention to the cultural and artistic ferment of the new regime. The Russian government's inability to support his extravagant proposals combined with the country's harsh living conditions led him to return to the West in 1924. Throughout her career, Isadora Duncan hated the commercial aspects of public performances; she saw tours, contracts, and other practical aspects of her profession as distractions from her true mission: the creation of beauty and the education of young people. Extremely gifted teacher, totally unconventional, she was the founder of three schools dedicated to the transmission of her philosophy to groups of young girls - her attempt to include boys in them proved to be a real failure. The first in Grunewald, Germany, gave birth to her most famous group of students: the Isadorables, who took her name and danced with her, but also quite independently. The second school had a short existence before the First World War, in a castle located outside Paris; as for the third school, it was part of the tumultuous experiments carried out by Isadora in Moscow under the yoke of the Russian Revolution. The teaching conducted by Isadora Duncan and her students brought her pride and anguish. His sister Elizabeth took over the German school and adapted it to the Germanic philosophy of her German husband. The Isadorables were then two-sided subjects imbued with the choreographic energy of Isadora but opposed to her by their constant desire to dance for commercial purposes. One of them, Lisa Duncan, was constantly punished for dancing in nightclubs. And the best-known of the group, Irma Duncan, who remained in the Soviet Union after Isadora left and took care of running the Moscow school, constantly angered Isadora by allowing students to dance. way too public and too commercial for his taste. Isadora Duncan was the mother of two children who died in 1913, drowned inside a car that fell in the Seine. Sergei Essénine left her and finally committed suicide in 1925. Isadora Duncan died tragically on September 14, 1927 in Nice, strangled by the long scarf she wore caught in the spokes of the wheel of the Amilcar GS of her garage owner Benoît Falchetto. She was cremated and her ashes rest in the Père-Lachaise cemetery in Paris with those of her children. Isadora Duncan dreamed of becoming, by dancing, "wave, wind, tree, cloud, light". For her, the dance had to be above all "free", allowing the spontaneous expression of the body through the rhythm which is the most fundamental and the most natural to it: breathing. September 14, 1927: tragic death of the dancer Isadora Duncan

  • Vivian maier | Femmes Exceptionnell

    Vivian maier A riddle, shrouded in a mystery, inside an enigma. In reconstructing the life of Vivian Maier, one can easily recall Churchill's famous quote about the vast land of tsars and commissioners to the east. A person who fits European stereotypes of an independent and liberated woman, with her accent, but who was born in New York. Someone intensely reserved and private, Vivian could be counted on to passionately preach her own very liberal view of the world to whoever wanted to listen to her, or not. Decidedly not materialistic, Vivian has come to amass a group of storage lockers filled to the brim with found objects, art books, newspaper clippings, amateur films, as well as political knick-knacks and knick-knacks. The story of this nanny who today amazed the whole world with her photographs and who, moreover, recorded some of the most interesting wonders and peculiarities of urban America in the second half of the 20th century, seems to exceed understanding. ​ American of French and Austro-Hungarian origin, Vivian lived between Europe and the United States before returning to New York in 1951. Having started photography two years earlier, she traveled the streets of the Big Apple to refine his art. In 1956, Vivian moved from the East Coast to Chicago, where she spent most of the rest of her life working as a caregiver. In her spare time, Vivian took pictures that she zealously hid from the eyes of others. Taking snapshots until the late 1990s ′, Maier left behind a body of work comprising over 100,000 negatives. In addition, Vivian's passion for documentation has extended to a series of homemade documentaries and audio recordings. Vivian Maier has meticulously cataloged interesting elements of America, the demolition of historic monuments for the benefit of new developments, the unseen lives of various groups of people and the destitute, as well as some of Chicago's most treasured sites. ​ A free spirit but also a proud soul, Vivian became poor and was eventually saved by three of the children she had looked after earlier in her life. Remembering Maier fondly as a second mother, they contributed to pay for her an apartment and took the best care of her. Unbeknownst to them, one of Vivian's warehouses was auctioned off for bad debts. It was in these cupboards that the enormous quantity of negatives that Maier had secretly hidden throughout his life was to be found. All of Vivian Maier's work was discovered in 2007 at a second-hand auction in Chicago's Northwestern neighborhood. From there, these works made an impact around the world and changed the life of the man who defended and revealed them to the public, John Maloof. Currently, all of Vivian Maier's work is archived and cataloged for the enjoyment of others and for future generations. John Maloof is at the heart of this project after having reconstructed most of the archives, which had previously been dispersed among the various buyers present at this auction. Today, with around 90% of its archives restored, Vivian's work is part of a renaissance of interest in the art of street photography. ​ Vivian maier ​ "Well, I guess nothing's supposed to last forever. We have to make room for other people. It's a wheel. You get on it, you have to go all the way. And then someone has the same opportunity to go to the end and so on. " - Vivian Maier ​ Vivian Maier (February 1, 1926 - April 21, 2009) is an American street photographer born in New York. Although born in the United States, it was in France that Maier spent most of her youth. She returned to the United States in 1951 where she worked as a nanny and caregiver until the end of her life. In her spare time, she began to venture into the art of photography. Consistently taking photos over the course of five decades, she has left over 100,000 negatives, most of them taken in Chicago and New York. Vivian would then indulge her passionate dedication to documenting the world around her through films, recordings, and home-made collections, providing one of the most fascinating windows into American life in the second half of the World. Twentieth century. ​ First years ​ Maier was born to a French mother and an Austrian father in the Bronx neighborhood of New York. Census records, while useful, give us an incomplete picture. We find Vivian at the age of four living in New York City with only her mother and Jeanne Bertrand, an award-winning portrait photographer, her father already no longer in the game. Later, archives show that Vivian returned from France to the United States in 1939 with her mother, Marie Maier. In 1951, we again have traces of his return from France, but this time without his mother. ​ ​ Vivian Maier's Kodak Brownie In 1949, while still in France, Vivian started taking her first photos. His camera was a modest Kodak Brownie body, an amateur camera with a single shutter speed, no focus control, and no aperture dial. The viewing screen is tiny, and for the controlled landscape painter or portrait painter, it would undoubtedly impose a wedge between Vivian and her intentions due to its imprecision. His intentions were at the mercy of this weak machine. In 1951, Maier returned to New York on the ship "De-Grass" and moved to a Southampton family as a nanny. In 1952, Vivian bought a Rolleiflex camera to satisfy her fixation. She remained with this family for most of her stay in New York until 1956, when she moved permanently to the northern suburbs of Chicago. Another family employs Vivian as a nanny for their three boys and will become their closest family for the rest of their life. John Maloof (Lire plus en cliquant) The following years ​ In 1956, when Maier moved to Chicago, she enjoyed the luxury of a darkroom and a private bathroom. It can thus develop its prints and its own rolls of B&W film. When the children became adults, the end of Maier's employment with this early Chicago family in the early 1970s forced her to give up developing her own films. As she moved from family to family, her undeveloped, unprinted film rolls began to pile up. ​ Left: Vivian Maier's bathroom served as a darkroom. Right: Some of Vivian Maier's cameras. It was around this time that Maier decided to switch to color photography, mainly using Kodak Ektachrome 35mm film, a Leica IIIc and various German SLR cameras. The color work has a touch that was not visible in Maier's work before this, and it has become more abstract over time. People slowly disappear from his photos to be replaced by found objects, newspapers and graffiti. Likewise, her work shows a compulsion to save the objects she finds in the trash cans or on the curb. In the 1980s, Vivian faced another challenge in her work. Financial stress and lack of stability once again put his work on hold and the rolls of Color Ektachrome began to pile up. Between the late 1990s and the early years of the new millennium, Vivian put down her camera and stored her belongings in an attempt to stay afloat. She went from homelessness to a small studio that a family she worked for helped pay for. With meager means, the stored photographs became lost memorabilia until they were sold for non-payment of rent in 2007. The negatives were auctioned off by the storage company to RPN Sales, who sold the boxes in a much larger auction to multiple buyers, including John Maloof. Above: A color photograph of Vivian Maier from 1973 Below: Maier's undeveloped film In 2008, Vivian fell on a patch of ice and hit her head in downtown Chicago. Although she is expected to make a full recovery, her health began to deteriorate, forcing her to enter a nursing home. She died shortly after, in April 2009, leaving behind huge archives. ​ PERSONAL LIFE ​ Often described as "Mary-Poppin's," Vivian Maier had eccentricity on her side as a nanny to three boys she raised as a mother. Beginning in 1956, while working for a family in an upscale Chicago suburb on the shores of Lake Michigan, Vivian had a taste of motherhood. She would take the boys to the strawberry fields to pick berries. She found a dead snake on the sidewalk and brought it home to show off to the boys or had games with all the kids in the neighborhood. Vivian was a free spirit and followed her curiosities wherever they took her. Having told others that she learned English in theaters and plays, Vivian's "theater of life" was playing out before her eyes so her camera could capture it in the most epic moments. Vivian had an interesting story. Her family were completely sidelined very early in her life, forcing her to become singular, as she will remain so all her life. She never married, had no children, and had no close friends who could tell they knew her personally. Maier's photos also betray an affinity with the poor, no doubt due to the emotional kinship she felt with those who struggled to get by. Her thirst for culture led her to travel the world. We know that she visited Canada in 1951 and 1955, in 1957 in South America, in 1959 in Europe, the Middle East and in Asia, in 1960 in Florida, in 1965 in the Caribbean, and so on. following. It should be noted that she traveled alone and gravitated around the less fortunate in society. ​ ​ Vivian Maier's travel itinerary from 1957 Her travels in search of the exotic have led her to seek the unusual in her own backyard as well. Whether it is the little-known sadness of the Yugoslav emigrants burying their tsar, the last tour of the legendary stockyards, the screening of a Polish film at the Cinema Polski at the Milford Theater, or the Chicagoans welcoming the crew of the Apollo, she was an impresario documenting what caught her eye, in photos, movies and sounds. The testimonials of people who knew Vivian are all very similar. She was eccentric, strong, had strong opinions, was highly intellectual, and had an intense private life. She wore a soft hat, a long dress, a woolen coat, men's shoes, and walked with a powerful step. With a camera around her neck as soon as she left the house, she obsessively took pictures, but never showed them to anyone. An original that is not cold in the eyes. ​ PHOTOGRAPHY All the images you will find on this site are not from prints made by Maier, but rather from new scans prepared from the negatives of Vivian. This naturally brings us to the question of artistic intention. What would Vivian have printed? How? 'Or' What ? These are valid concerns, and it is for this reason that most attention has been paid to learning the styles that she favors in her work. It took meticulous study of the prints that Maier herself had printed, as well as the plethora of notes given to labs with instructions on how to print and crop, paper type, paper finish, etc. ​ Some of Maier's printing instructions Whenever her work has been exhibited, such as the exhibit at the Chicago Cultural Center, this information has been taken into account to interpret her work as closely as possible to its original process. Jeanne Bertrand in a 1902 Boston Globe article Jeanne Bertrand was an important figure in Vivian's life. Census records designate her as the head of the family, living with Vivian and her mother in 1930. Jeanne's upbringing was similar to that of Vivian: she grew up in poverty, lost her father when she was young and worked in a needle factory in conditions similar to those of a sweatshop. However, in 1905, we can read in the Boston Globe that Jeanne Bertrand is presented as one of the most eminent photographers of Connecticut. What makes this information even more surprising is that Jeanne Bertrand had only started photography four years ago. But, even though Bertrand was an early influence, it should also be noted that Bertrand was a portrait photographer. Vivian first took a camera in the French Alps around 1949. The photographs she took were portraits and controlled landscapes. Chances are, Vivian was trained by Jeanne Bertrand. In 1951, Vivian arrived in New York and continued to use the same techniques she practiced in France with the same Kodak Brownie camera in 6 × 9 format. But in 1952, Vivian's work changed dramatically. She begins to photograph with a square format. She buys an expensive Rolleiflex device - a big step up from the hobbyist device she used to start with. His eye has changed. She captures the spontaneity of street scenes with a precision reminiscent of Henri-Cartier-Bresson, street portraits that evoke Lisette Model and fantastic compositions similar to those of Andre Kertesz. 1952 is the year that Vivian's classic style begins to take shape. Sur les traces de Vivian Maier Sur les traces de Vivian Maier 00:00 / 52:19 Emission du mardi 24 juin 2014

  • Margaret bourke-white | Femmes Exceptionnell

    Margaret bourke-white “No image is unimportant to me. " " Photography is a subtle thing. You must let the device take you by the hand and lead you to your subject. " Margaret bourke-white PhotoReporter She received her first camera, a used 3 ¼ x 4 ¼ inch ICA Reflex with a cracked lens, taking her first photos on glass plates. ICA Reflex 3 ¼ x 4 ¼ inches American photoreporter. Famous photoreporter, Margaret Bourke-White has established herself in a predominantly male environment. At the heart of major historical events, it transmitted some of the most striking images of the 20th century, some of which have become icons. Daughter of an amateur photographer engineer, she perfected her practice - acquired at Columbia - at the University of Michigan and began to sell some pictorialist style photographs in 1924. Two years later, after her divorce, she resumed her studies, then graduated from Cornell University in 1927. From then on, she began a career as an architectural photographer in Cleveland. His production at the time has great affinities, on the one hand with that of the American current of straight photography, initiated by Paul Strand, on the other hand with the European modernist movement launched by Laszlò Moholy-Nagy. His photographs " pure », Produced in the steelworks of the Otis Steel Company between 1927 and 1928, extol the machine and industrialization in a context of national pride. His commercial success allowed him to open a studio in Cleveland, whose Art Museum rewards industrial images in 1927. Mr. Bourke-White began in photojournalism thanks to the American publisher Henry Luce, who hired him to illustrate the first issue of Fortune magazine, published in February 1930. On the strength of her recent success, she moved into the Chrysler Building in 1930. The same year, she spent five months in the USSR where she photographed industrial installations, the various sites of the five-year plans in class, and become familiar with the photographic visual rhetoric of Soviet propaganda. His photos of Russia, published in Fortune, are the subject of a book : Eyes on Russia (1931). Statue of Liberty, New York, 1930 3 1/4 x 4 1/4 RB Auto Graflex 1909-1941 A large Graflex SLR, for its film size this particular camera dates from 1915. Having the longest lifespan of any Graflex SLR, the Auto Graflex was manufactured between 1909 and 1941. It is a old model whose top is hinged at the front. It also has a rotating Graflex back and shutter speeds T + 1/10 to 1/1000 of a second. This one comes equipped with a nice Cooke Anastigmat 8.5 "Series IV brass lens, a fairly expensive option at the time of purchase. Margaret Bourke-White (1904-1971) American photographer born in New York in the district of the Bronx where she grew up, daughter of Joseph White, of Polish origin, engineer in the printing sector at the " Hall Printing Press Company ", and a mother of Irish and English descent, Minnie Bourke. In 1912, at the age of 8, his father took him to visit the rotary press production plant in Duncllen, New Jersey, where castings were produced for the production of rotary presses. Perched from the top of a balcony, she witnesses the pouring of molten metal, with the magic of light, heat and sparks, she is amazed by this spectacle, which forever marks her attachment to industrial beauty. From 1916, his father, also amateur photographer, introduced him to photography, at the age of 12, she assisted him in his shots, as well as in the development of his prints which he made in a bathtub. 1918 to 1921, she studied at Plainfield High School in New Jersey, in 1921, entered Columbia University and then in 1922 joined Rutgers University. In 1923, passionate about dance, she changed again to join the University of Michigan, it was from this moment that she began photography by making portraits to illustrate the book of her year of promotion. Gifted at writing articles, she was offered a position as a photographic editor for the Faculty's annual newspaper, a position she refused to marry Everett Chapman, a student electrical engineer. In January 1922, following the death of her father, she missed a semester, then returned to Columbia University where she took evening classes in photography. from Clarence H. White, famous representative of Pictorialist photography, who taught him composition, instilled in him the way of photographing landscapes, with vaporous tones. Still not giving up on her dreams of becoming a scientist, she plans to use photography to document her profession. For $ 20, his mother gives him a second-hand Reflex ICA camera with a cracked lens. In order to pay for her schooling, during the summer, she teaches as a teacher, and sells to tourists no less than 2000 postcards she makes at Camp Agaming on the shores of Bantam Lake in Connecticut. After her marriage broke down in 1926, she resumed studies of reptiles and amphibians at Cornell University in the city of Ithaca, where she graduated in biology in 1927. With her old camera, she finds again the opportunity to set up a photographic business, to earn a living, and takes as a subject photos of buildings surrounded by snow, frozen waterfalls. The success is such, that despite her hard work, she has to hire two students to help her. At the same time, she takes journalism courses, presents her photos at the " Cornell Alumni News Which pays him each coverage, for $ 5. In 1927, she moved to Cleveland, to join her mother and brother, and began a career as an industrial photographer. Until then an amateur photographer, she added to her name that of her mother, Bourke, and in 1928 opened her own studio "Bourke-White Photography", in the Terminal Tower in Cleveland, a skyscraper, just rose from the ground, becoming a freelance professional photographer, specializing in shots of architecture and industrial buildings. Orders for the press are pouring in, she works for manufacturers, " The Aluminum Company of America "," The Standard Oil of Ohio "," The Chrysler Corporation ", For architects, bankers, and numerous magazines," New York Times Magazine "," Vanity Fair ", and" House and Garden ". From 1928, she worked to photograph the construction of the "Chrysler Building", to promote it, which allowed her to earn a living. Thanks to his photographs taken on behalf of the " Otis Steel Company ", She was noticed for her originality by the publisher Henry Luce, seduced by his pictures of this steelworks, in 1929, he hired for his new magazine" Fortune ". The following year, in 1930, the magazine sent her to Germany, in order to photograph the Krupp steel factories there, she continued her journey to the Soviet Union, obtained a visa, becoming the first Western photographer authorized to enter the USSR. , she stayed there for more than five weeks, and produced a report on the first five-year plan, photographing factories, farms, dams, and workers, taking no less than three thousand shots. The same year, she moved her studio to Cleveland, to open another in New York on the 61st floor of the Chrysler Building. In the summer of 1931, she went to the USSR for a second time to photograph Magnitogorsk, the immense metallurgical complex in the Kazaksthan region, a report which resulted in the publication of a book "Eyes on Russia". The same year he participated in a group exhibition in New York alongside Ralph Steiner and Walker Evans . In 1934, while reporting for Fortune on the water scarcity in the American West, she became aware of human suffering, of the social reality, that of American farmers powerless in the face of the crisis, which led to 'moves away from its advertising work. Outside the framework of the " Farm Security Administration She takes part in the situation, photographing the victims of the Dust Bowl like Dorothea Lange . In 1935, she produced series of aerial images for various aviation companies, such as the " Eastern Airlines ". In 1936, as soon as LIFE magazine was launched, Margaret Bourke-White was the magazine's only woman and alongside photographer Alfred Eisenstaedt , one of the four permanent reporters, she featured " A From the first issue, November 23, 1936, with its report on the Fort Peck Dam in Montana. The same year she collaborated with her future husband Erskine Caldwell on a book entitled "You Have Seen Their Faces", dealing with rural poverty in the South of the United States. In 1938, she went to Czechoslovakia, to document the rise of political events, and published "North of the Danube". In 1939 as a second wedding, she married the writer Erskine Caldwell. It covers the pre-war period of the United Kingdom in Romania, travels through Turkey, Syria and Egypt. At the beginning of 1940, for a short period, she collaborated for the New York newspaper " PM », But very quickly returned to LIFE. During the Second World War, she was the first American photographer accredited and authorized to fly on a combat mission, in areas of military operations for the US Air Force, she worked as a war correspondent for LIFE. She returned to the USSR and found refuge at the American Embassy in Moscow at the time of the German invasion. She photographs other fronts during the conflict in North Africa, Italy, follows General George S. Patton in defeated Germany to the Buchenwald concentration camp, which 'it is one of the first to be discovered, on April 15, 1945. After the war, she continued her travels, and devoted herself to humanitarian reports, with other artists, she trained " the American Artist's Congress », A left-wing organization, raising public funds, to promote the arts and fight racial discrimination. From 1946, she traveled to India and spent three years covering the accession to independence, she followed Mahatma Gandhi's campaign for non-violence, met him and was the last person to interview him. On January 30, 1948, six hours before Gandhi's assassination, she spoke with him in the gardens of Birta House in New Delhi, the last moments of a long relationship with this man, his relatives and the whole country. " Just a few hours later, as he was on his way to prayer, this man who believed that non-violence could even defeat atomic bombs fell, shot dead by revolver bullets. »Margaret Bourke-White In 1950, she left for Johannesburg, to document the Apartheid that was rife in South Africa, in order to report on the conditions of workers in the diamond and gold mines, not hesitating to descend more than three kilometers under earth, to bring back exceptional pictures. In 1952, while traveling to Korea, to cover the communist guerrillas, she felt the first signs of a terrible disease, the onset of Parkinson's disease. In 1955, Edward Steichen , photographic director of the Museum of Modern Art in New York, selected several of his photos for the exhibition “The Family of Man”. 1957, unable to continue her photographic activity, she took a semi-retirement, and then devoted herself for six years to writing her biography, "Portrait of Myself" which was published in 1963, which quickly became a successful edition. In 1957, the Boston Chamber of Commerce awarded him " the American Woman of Achievement Quote ", In 1963 the US Camera Magazine awarded him the" Achievement Award "And in 1964 the American Society of Magazine Photographers, the award of" the Honor Roll Award ". From her adolescence Margaret Bourke-White dreams of a life full of adventures. It is widely granted and his life is a tumultuous and rich romance. And as a woman with an intrepid character, she knows how to make an eminent place in a man's profession. To get her passport to adventure, she quickly understands that photography is the ideal medium. And his genius for being in the right place at the right time allows him to produce images that have become testimonies, icons. His photos tell stories, but also make history. " I don't know of anything else that equals the happy expectation of discovering something new, something you can become in advance, something that only you will find, because in Besides being a photographer, you are a special type of person. »Margaret Bourke-White Installed in Cleveland, in contact with black steel factories, she gave up very quickly the vaporous artistic blurs that she practices at the beginning of her career. His style therefore becomes more precise and better suited to publications in the periodical press. Embracing modernity, she chooses to devote herself to the photography of industrial landscapes, she achieves it through practice, coupled with a good determination to learn on the job. " The industrial world, vast and dynamic, is offered to me. »Margaret Bourke-White Between each trip, book or report for Life magazine, Margaret returns home to New York, where her second home is, the editorial staff of Life, and to Connecticut where her refuge, a large cottage in the middle of the woods, is located. She quickly discovers that it is through photography that all is best understood. The geometric patterns that his gaze carves out on the keys of a typewriter, on lathes, plows, suspension bridges, and even on the toga of the Statue of Liberty, enchants him to the point that back, she constructs through her photographs, a sublimated account of progress and symbols, at the dawn of the 20th century. She is one of the great chroniclers of the modern and mechanical era, she photographs the city of New York in full swing, the equipment and the industrial production processes by employing methods which capture a universe usually perceived as stripped of beauty. Romanizing the extraordinary power of a new world and with close-ups, lighting effects, unusual perceptives, she creates artistic compositions, visual feats of strength that show her understanding of modern design and aesthetics. . " Another photographer would also take pictures, but they would be different, only you have that singular mental and emotional experience of precisely perceiving the detail of a story and capturing it on gelatin film. »Margaret Bourke-White Aerial views are ubiquitous and characteristic for the photographer, whose studio is located atop the Chrysler Building, from her top floor window she can see not one, but two shiny, steel gargoyles pointing south- Where is. No other studio is at such a height as hers and time after time she climbs these gargoyles to photograph New York City. " The height does not scare me, here at the top of the Chrysler Building, the welders and riveters gave me a precious rule : When you are 300 meters above the ground, think you are 3 meters above the ground and relax, the problems are exactly the same. »Margaret Bourke-White Witnessing the most important events of the 20th century, Margaret Bourke-White captures looks and gestures, powerfully constructs her images and, often through the particular, gives the deep meaning of historical facts. His hundreds of thousands of photographs reflect adventure, sensitivity and courage. His work is rich in more than 25,000 photographs, now appearing in many museums, the " Brooklyn museum " , the " Cleveland Museum " , to the " Bird Library of Syracuse ", to " MoMA "In New York, as well as at the" library of congress From Washington. ​ Hydrogenerators, Niagara Falls Power Co, New York, 1928 Margaret Bourke-White, Chrysler Building (Facade), c. 1930 Buchenwald, Germany, 1945 She manages to account for the different phases of the Second World War, from air raids, through the Italian campaign and the advance in Germany by the allies, until the arrival in 1945 in Buchenwald. " I am often asked how it is possible to photograph such atrocities, I have to work with a veil over my soul. When I photograph the death camps the protective veil is so tightly drawn that I hardly know what I am taking until I see the prints, it is like then I was discovering these horrors for the first time. . »Margaret Bourke-White During the 1930s and early 1940s, her work focused on Europe, she wanted to show the repercussions of Nazism and Communism on living conditions, the militarization of society and the strong ideological orientation transmitted from the first years of school, like this photograph that she takes with a capacity to capture with a simple image, the strong moments of the story, that of a Romanian class in Chisinau, with the pupils raising their arms in the air straight. Fort Peck Dam, Montana, 1936 Margaret Bourke White Chisinau, Roumanie, 1940 ​ "Des élèves en uniforme de l'école de filles de Chisinau font le salut officiel de la Straga Taree, une organisation de jeunesse roumaine fasciste obligatoire. Février 1940". ​ Margaret Bourke White : The LIFE picture Collection via Getty The image is displayed in " A ”from the first issue of Life Magazine, November 23, 1936. Its director, Henry Luce, wanted something large, gigantic, and imposing. Margaret then made a report on the dam, the largest in the world at the time, built in the prairies of Montana, at Fort Peck.

  • 14-18 Les femmes sur tous les fronts | Femmes Exceptionnell

    14-18 Il n'y avait pas que des poilus, les femmes sur tous les fronts Si les femmes ont toujours travaillé, en tout cas à la campagne et dans les milieux populaires, le premier conflit mondial constitue néanmoins un moment particulier dans l’histoire du travail féminin : entre 1914 et 1918 en effet, les femmes ont remplacé « sur le champ du travail » les hommes partis combattre sur le front. Elles ont investi des domaines jusque-là majoritairement, voire exclusivement masculins, notamment les industries d’armement qui voient alors apparaître la célèbre figure de la munitionnette. Ces remplaçantes fascinent tout autant qu’elles inquiètent : si cette main-d’œuvre féminine contribue au bon fonctionnement de l’arrière et se révèle donc indispensable à l’effort de guerre, ne faut-il pas avoir peur de l’inversion des rôles sexués qui semble s’opérer à la faveur de ce remplacement ? Cette crainte se renforce au cours des grandes grèves féminines du printemps 1917 : en cessant de fabriquer des obus, c’est tout le destin du pays que les ouvrières tiennent entre leurs mains.

  • Marie Curie | Femmes Exceptionnell

    Marie Curie Biography of Marie Curie Marie Curie made science her profession, “because I wanted to, she said, because I liked research”. She undoubtedly believed in the positive role of science in the evolution of society and she measured the strength of the symbol that she herself represented for women. ​ Marie Skłodowska-Curie (1867-1934) The fifth child of a family of patriotic and very cultivated teachers, Maria Sklodowska was born on November 7, 1867 in Warsaw, in a part of Poland then under the domination of the Russian Empire. Raised in a family where education is of great importance, she succeeded brilliantly in high school, and dreams of studying science. But in Warsaw, at the time, universities were not open to women. The only way for a young Polish woman who wishes to pursue higher education is therefore to go abroad. Her older sister Bronia has the same desire, and wants to study medicine. The two sisters thus conclude a pact and choose to come and study in France by combining their efforts. Maria is placed as a preceptor in a family for several years to help her sister who left for Paris and to build up savings for her future studies. Marie arrived in Paris and enrolled at the Sorbonne in October 1891. Aware of her shortcomings, she immersed herself in studies and decided to do a first year again. The teachings fascinate her, she sometimes works beyond her strength. In 1893, she obtained a license in physical sciences with honors, and in 1894, a license in mathematical sciences with high honors. She intends to return to teach in Poland as soon as her two licenses have been acquired, but obtaining, in early 1894, a small contract financed by the Society for the Encouragement of National Industry (SEIN) to measure the magnetic properties of different steels. leads him to meet Pierre Curie. See more © Photo Curie Museum in Warsaw. Source: Musée Curie (coll. ACJC) Wladislaw Sklodowski, the father of Maria Sklodowska (Marie Curie), surrounded by his daughters in 1890. From left to right: Maria, Bronia, Helena. Eight years his senior, professor at the municipal school of industrial physics and chemistry of the city of Paris, Pierre Curie is already a physicist recognized for his work on piezoelectricity , symmetry and magnetism. Their meeting changes the course of their lives. They married on July 26, 1895. During this period, Marie wrote to her friend Kazia “When you receive this letter, your Mania will have changed its name. When you receive this letter, write to me: Madame Curie. School of Physics and Chemistry, 42, rue Lhomond. This is my name from now on ” After the birth of a first daughter, Irene, Marie undertook a doctoral thesis in physics on “uranium rays” discovered by Henri Becquerel. The quantitative method developed by Pierre enables him to establish the atomic character of uranium radiation and to broaden his research. The surprising results obtained for uranium minerals suggest to them that these contain an unknown element. Pierre and Marie Curie therefore work together. In July and December 1898 they discovered not one, but two new elements, polonium and radium. The spontaneous radiation of these elements, their radioactivity according to the term introduced by Marie Curie, is of the same nature as that of uranium, but much more intense. The Curies shared the 1903 Nobel Prize in Physics with Henri Becquerel. That same year, in June, Marie Curie defended her doctoral thesis in physical sciences. She presents the discovery of polonium and radium and the work she has done since: the separation of a pure radium salt from tonnes of pitchblende residue and the measurement of the atomic mass of this element. In 1904, Pierre became professor at the Sorbonne, holder of a chair in physics specially created for him. Marie was then appointed head of work for the Curie laboratory attached to this chair. A few months later, their second daughter Eve was born. ​ On April 19, 1906, Pierre Curie died in a traffic accident. The Faculty of Sciences entrusts the succession of Pierre to Marie Curie. Marie Curie is appointed director of the laboratory and in charge of Pierre's course. The first scientific course at the Sorbonne, on November 5, 1906, was an event attended by students, journalists and the curious. In 1908, Marie Curie was appointed titular professor of the chair of Pierre, which had just been declared vacant. She is the first female university professor in France. In 1907 and 1908, she organized a teaching cooperative with colleagues. Irene and a dozen of her friends will remember Marie's concrete physics lessons. In January 1911, she presented her candidacy for the Academy of Sciences and was not elected (the Academy would not welcome a woman into its ranks until half a century later). In November of that same year, her relationship with Paul Langevin revealed in the press unleashed a violent xenophobic campaign against her. A second Nobel Prize, this time in Chemistry, was awarded to him in December. At the beginning of 1912 Marie Curie gave a negative response to the proposal to continue her research in Poland and to take charge of the Institute which had just been created there. She finally sees the start of construction in Paris of a radium institute. The buildings were almost completed in July 1914. Pierre and Marie Curie in the "discovery shed" around December 1903. Façade of the Radium Institute, Curie pavilion, in the 1920s. Marie Curie devoted the four years of the war to the development of fixed or mobile radiology and to the training of nurses specializing in the use of X-ray equipment. She was helped by her eldest daughter and three other women. Within the Red Cross and the National Patronage for the Wounded, Marie Curie manages to equip 18 radiological cars. These vehicles, later nicknamed the "small Curies" by Eve Curie in the biography she dedicated to her mother, were added to the army vehicles, and more than a million wounded benefited from a proven technique. for locating projectiles. The lack of resources, in a country ruined by war, slows down the resumption of research on radioactivity at the Radium Institute. Marie Curie received, in 1920, an American journalist, Mrs Meloney. Fascinated by the person of Marie Curie, she decides to launch a subscription among American women. Marie Curie, accompanied by Irene and Eve, went to the United States in May-June 1921 to receive a gram of radium, numerous instruments and large sums of money. This trip has a considerable impact. That same year, the creation of the Fondation Curie opened a period of development in the use of radiation for the treatment of cancer. Marie was elected to the Academy of Medicine as a free member in 1922, without having been a candidate "in recognition of a new medication:" brachytherapy ". The post-war years were for Marie Curie years of work, but also of fulfillment. She agrees to use the prestige of her name to defend the values she believes in. In particular, it provides unfailing support for Jean Perrin's efforts for scientific research. From 1922, it became involved in the work of the “International Commission on Intellectual Co-operation” set up by the League of Nations, for science and for peace. She travels to give lectures or provide assistance, particularly to Poland. She died of pernicious anemia on July 4, 1934. The ashes of Marie and Pierre Curie were transferred to the Pantheon on April 20, 1995. Source: https://musee.curie.fr Marie Curie in her laboratory "In life, nothing is to be feared, everything is to be understood."

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